Can we overcome the “blues” in conservation and natural resource management?
By: Javier Mateo-Vega (Ph.D. Candidate - Biology/NEO)
It is surreal to grapple with critical conservation challenges occurring in the Kingdom of Bhutan (yes, that exotic country that lies at the eastern flank of the Himalayas) while sitting near the confluence of the Chagres River and Panama Canal in the town of Gamboa, Panama! But this is what happens when you take part in the course, “Foundations of Environmental Policy” (ENVR610), one of the two required NEO courses.
Under the guidance of Prof. Gordon Hickey (a rare scholar with vast experience as a practitioner and policy-maker), we had spent all afternoon discussing the issue of human-wildlife conflicts in Bhutan and attempting to identify viable solutions to this “wicked” problem. At first, it was fun to be transported momentarily to this remote Kingdom through our readings and complementary videos. But as we were challenged to explore options for addressing human-wildlife conflicts in a manner that is sensitive to the environmental, socio-economic, cultural and political realities of the country, many of us began to feel overwhelmed and even a little “blue”. Are true win-win solutions possible; who decides when it’s a win-win; are win-wins able to endure over time?
Over the course of the following five days, we were confronted with many similar cases, from deforestation and cattle ranching in Brazil, to horseshoe crab harvesting practices in eastern US, to community based eco-tourism enterprises in China. We also had the opportunity to visit the mind-blowing expansion of the Panama Canal on the Caribbean coast, and visit STRI’s Punta Galeta research station to discuss with Dr. Stanley Heckadon (STRI Staff Scientist), and other staff, the potential environmental and social impacts of megaproject developments on mangroves, coral reefs, forests, and the “social fabric” of the region. We were challenged to wear multiple “hats” and approach these problems as scientists, community members, indigenous leaders, policy makers and concerned citizens.
All of these cases illustrate the enormous difficulties in linking science with environmental policy, and the trade-offs that are inherent to managing any natural resource. Clearly, there are no right or wrong answers or solutions to these issues. In most cases, any decision or action will result in either a net loss of biodiversity or a net loss of livelihoods. Finding how those net losses can be minimized is tricky, especially because natural resource management decisions take place in contexts of changing conditions (e.g. environmental, political, social, economic), incomplete information and uncertainty, conflicts due to varying interests from different stakeholders, and complex - and often poorly understood - interactions between environmental and social systems.
At the end of each day of the course, some would joke, “environmental policy could lead any person to drink heavily”; “this course should include a therapist to ensure we don’t fall into a deep depression”; or simply “my brain hurts.” For many, it was the first time they had been exposed to the world of environmental policy and gotten a glimpse of where their professional paths may lead them. We have witnessed past generations of NEO graduates take on jobs in academia, NGOs, government agencies, and the corporate sector. Almost all have and will invariably engage in environmental policy at some point in their careers. This course undoubtedly prepares all of us for this process.
As I listened to each one of our classmates introduce themselves and their research at the beginning of the course, it is clear that NEO attracts individuals from all walks of life and corners of the world who are passionate about nature, science, rural livelihoods, politics, and economics, among many other topics. Over meals, you could hear conversations about genomics, manatees, seaweed cultivation, phylogenetics, indigenous peoples rights, etc. This proved to be the way I got over my “blues” throughout the week. Seeing the passion of the group, their sophisticated and innovative approaches to problem solving, and commitment to action was both empowering and inspiring. I think all of us walked away feeling much more motivated and prepared to participate in the environmental policy arena.